development of scientific philosophy through the works of Bacon, Locke and Russell. No unintelligent cramming. Realistic education is connected with the needs of life. शिक्षण कौशल (Teaching Skill) The aim of education should be to teach truth rather than beauty, to understand the present practical life. For Herbart, education was applied psychology. M. Ed, Ph.D.. Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V. Then how does our illusion arise ? Thus, mind becomes the relationship between the subject and the object. According to this philosophy, education contains those important and practical and useful activities which make man self-dependent and useful member of the society. The formula for it was "Universalia ante rem." The purpose of this explanation is to enable the pupil to adjust himself in the environment in which he must live. Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. Broudy describes the pupil by elaborating four principles which, according to him, comprise the essence of the human self. Realism has probably had the greatest impact on educational philosophy, because it is the foundation of scientific reasoning. )” – Bacon. 2. The developing realism has adopted four points in education : Humanistic realism is the reaction against the emphasise on form and style of the old classical literature. Basically, there are two different schools of epistemological thought in the realist camp. The child is a real unit which has real existence. Realists favoured principles of observation and experience as imparting knowledge of objects... (ii) Discipline:. A person becomes disappointed by this feeling. Has non-existence got no existence ? Only the means for acquiring such goals or objects can be judged good or bad insofar as they enable the individual or the group to attain them. American Realism: The New Realists and the Critical Realists. To do this he uses lectures, demonstrations, and sensory experiences, the teacher does not do this in a random or haphazard way; he must not only introduce the student to nature, but show him the regularities, the “rhythm” of nature so that he may come to understand natural law. For the realist, the world is as it is, and the job of schools would Thus, the realism has brought great effect in various fields of education. These experiences can be something as simple as a field trip. Although some of the early pre-Christian thinkers dealt with the problems of the physical world (most notably the early Greek physicist- philosophers, Democritus and Leucippus) the first detailed realistic position is generally attributed to Aristotle. A teacher should be such that he himself be educated and well versed with the customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places. Both positions, despite their differences, create problems for the educator. FOUR FORMS OF REALISM a) SCHOLASTIC... 3. The implication of this are spelled out in his concept of the tabula rasa or the mind as a blank sheet on which the outside world must leave its impressions. This area of philosophy focuses on the nature of reality. It can be seen that for realism there is logic of investigation as well as a logic of reasoning. There is too much emphasis on the individual in realism .Some of them place too much emphasis on of the complexity and interdependence of modern society. Realism believes that in order to teach students effectively, an overall curriculum is of utmost importance. Teaching methods focus on mastery of facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation. Most of the philosophical realists of this school pay little or no attention to developing an educational theory consistent with their basic philosophical beliefs as Dewey, broody, Adler, And Martian have done. Physiological life, and therefore the life of personality, cannot go on unless these necessary tissue needs are supplied. All these cannot be overlooked. No pressure or coercion be brought upon the child. The uniformity should be the basic principle in all things. Discipline is adjustment the individual in the educational program. The understanding of natural law comes through the organizing of data through insight. Aristotle, a student of Plato who broke with his mentor's idealist philosophy, is called the father of both Realism and the scientific method. It has great regard for the ancient literature but it emphasizes the study of content and ideas in the ancient classical literature to understand one’s present social life and environment. The realist in their method approves anything which involves learning through sensory experience whether it be direct or indirect. Which philosophy believes that nature contains moral law and beauty. In philosophy you have to ask, Realism in regard to what? These real entities and relations can be known in part by the human mind as they are in themselves. As we study nature and gather data, we can see the underlying order of the universe. The New Realist position is the weaker of the two since direct cognition does not permit error and the rationale employed by Wild, that “Error is the creation of the erring subject” is most unsatisfactory if the mind is viewed purely as relational with no contents of its own with which to create error. The teachers serve as a demonstrator, an authoritative guide, who serves as the expert of the applicable subject matter (Ozmon, 2012). For the realist, the world is as it is, and the job of schools would be to teach students about the world. It appears the methods and results of modern development in physics. The realists make no provision for the world of supernature and takes an agonistic view towards it. In educational theory and practice, the scientific realists might be criticized for the following reasons: Realism treats metaphysics as meaningless. 4. This is the position of philosophical realism: the view that whatever we perceive is real, truly out there. Rather it implies that the symbol has no special existential status but is viewed simply as a means of communicating about, or representing, the real world. Within the mind, new apperceptions or presentations united with older apperceptions and struggled to rise from the unconscious level of mind to the conscious. Aim is more education. In fact, real knowledge comes only when the organism can organize the data of experience. Because the sun rises in the East every day is no guarantee that it will rise there tomorrow, although the probability is ridiculously high. Its very formalism was also its greatest weakness since it allowed a teacher slavishly to develop a lesson with allowed the rigid teacher to teach rigidly. Thus lip service may be paid to the goals of developing critical thinking understanding and other complex intellectual functions but little is done by the student to attain these goals. The one functions largely at the level of sense perception, the other more especially at the conceptual level. The Realist believes in a world of Things or Beings (metaphysics) and in truth as an Observable Fact. Erasmus (1446-1537 ), Rabelais (1483-1553), John Milston (1608-1674) were the supporters of this faculty. Students to be taught to analyze rather than to construct. This necessity of the school for the making of man was made vivid for Comenius by reports which had come to him of children who had been reared from infancy by animals. The laws of nature, the realist believes, are most readily understood through the subjects of nature, namely the sciences in all their many branches. Application: In general this meant the working of academic exercises and problems based on both the new information and the relevant related information in the appreciative mass. The realist recognizes the origin of knowledge from the datum achieved by senses and asserts that only objects are main and it is through their contact that knowledge is acquired. And each one has different perspectives. According to them aims are specific to each individual and his perspectives.” (Seetharamu, A.S. : philosophies of Education, p.74). In their method, the realist depends on motivation the student. Social Realism in education is the reaction against a type of education that produces scholars and professional men to the neglect of the man of affairs i.e. Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. They do not consider the scientific principles everlasting while they express the changeability in them. John Wild, while differing slightly from the foregoing analysis, describes the ordering of the curriculum in such a way as to indicate his philosophical orientation toward realism. These powers of the child shall have to be given due regarding at the time of planning education. 149-50 ). There is the constant danger that there will arise a class of persons who be the ones with the responsibility of identifying and arbitrating questions concreting absolutes. Plato thought … REALISM -as a Philosophy of Education Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A. Presentation: The new facts and materials are set forth and explained. But for the realist, the good life is equated with one which is in tune with the overarching order of natural law. He feels that traditional logic needs to be supplemented by the science of mathematics because of the inaccuracy and vagueness both of words and grammer.He thinks that if logical relations are to be stated accurately .they must be represented by mathematical symbols and equations, words are too bungle some. 6. Thus, to teach moral absolutes and natural laws is a highly questionable procedure. He is neither pessimist, nor optimist. The self has form as well as continuity. The exercise of rational thought is viewed as the ultimate purpose for humankind. शिक्षण प्रक्रिया में शिक्षक को अनेक कार्य एक साथ करने पड़ते हैं जैसे लिखना, प्रश्न पूछना, स्पष्ट करना, प्रदर्शन करना... शिक्षण कौशल ( Teaching Skill) Realists hold that man can know reality, and that he does so through inductive experience. There is a close relation between the refinement of perception and the ability to enjoy aesthetic values. Explain major world views of philosophies: idealism, realism, and pragmatism; and 2. Realist educators encourage students to draw their observations and conclusions from the world around them, rather than confining themselves to an analysis of their own ideas. There is danger of encouraging elitism. But he insists that the prime goal of all school activities should be the development of intelligence. Realism played a great role in changing the trend during the medieval times. To the realist, the student is a functioning organism which, through sensory experience, can perceive the natural order of the world. The pupil, as viewed by many realists, is not free but is subject to natural laws. Then he should become acquainted with the methods of physics, chemistry and biology and the basic facts so far revealed by these science. He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life. Past activity is no guarantee of future activity. In order to understand it more clearly and objectively, he should gain some knowledge of at least one foreign language as well. These may be priests in an idealist society or scientist in a realist society, but whatever they are, they become an external source of authority in an area in which people should be speculating and the danger of an inquisition is always inherent in such a social structure. Truth is objective-what can be observed. These moral laws have the same existential status as the law of gravity in the physical sciences or the economic laws which are supposed to operate in the free market. Realism Realists believe that reality exists independent of the human mind. The aims, the curriculum, the methods of teaching the outlook towards the child, the teachers, the discipline and the system of education all were given new blood. When only one response is repeated for one stimulus, it conditioned by that stimulus. One flies from senses and particulars, to the most general axioms and from these principles and infallible truth determines and discovers intermediate axioms….the other constructs axioms from the senses and particulars by ascending continually and gradually, so as to teach most general axioms last of all. शिक्षण प्रक्रिया में शिक्षक को अनेक कार्य एक साथ करने पड़ते हैं जैसे लिखना, प्रश्न पूछना, स्पष्ट करना, प्रदर्शन करना आदि... शिक्षण कौशल ( Teaching Skill) Philosophy is developed from education. 7. Realism, in philosophy, the viewpoint which accords to things which are known or perceived an existence or nature which is independent of whether anyone is thinking about or perceiving them. (4) And even skepticism also has its value in truth-seeking; it may not yield any positive truth for us but it can save us from cockiness and smugness, and help us to be tolerant and open minded. and this new outlook is termed as Realism. The passive aspects of the knowing process are overemphasised by realists. Realists just as other philosophers have expressed the aims of education in various forms. Freedom does not carry built-in guarantees that it will be turned to good ends. Void ness and non-existence also are the parts of existence. Aristotle also was the first to teach logic as a formal discipline in order to be able to reason about physical events and aspects. Realism appears to be a reaction against curricula consisting of studies that have become bookish, sophisticated and a abstruse. Where an idealist would say that a tree in the middle of the desert exists only if it is in some mind, or if there is knowledge of it; the realist would hold that whether or not anyone or anything is thinking about the tree, it nonetheless exists. The purpose of the lesson is explained and an attempt to interest the learner is made. 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